Cyberspace has become an important battlefield, and an integral part of current and future conflicts. Recent years have seen increasing cyber-attacks on political targets, crucial infrastructure, and the Web sites of commercial corporations. These attacks, which are also, increasingly, receiving international attention, are perpetrated by nation-state actors (which do not take responsibility for them); groups of hackers (such as Anonymous); criminal organizations; and lone hackers. Nation-state actors are becoming ever more aware of the cyber threat, and are assessing its effect on their national security. To this end, many of them are finding (and funding) ways to develop the defense mechanisms to cope with the threat, as well as their own offensive capabilities.