Fred Halliday, a worldwide respected academic specializing in international relations and the Middle East, with particular reference to Iran, notes that in essence, Islamism − the organized political trend owing its modern origin to the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928 - saw socialism "in all its forms as another head of the western secular hydra; it had to be fought all the more bitterly because it had such a following in the Arab world, in Iran and in other Muslim countries."
Notes:  Fred Halliday, "The Left and Islam," openDemocracy website, September 8, 2006, at http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization/left_jihad_3886.jsp.  Ibid.  See Ely Karmon, "Iran and its proxy Hezbollah - Strategic Penetration to Latin America," Elcano Royal Institute Working Paper, Madrid, 18/2009, April 8, 2009, at http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/ wps/portal/rielcano_eng/Content?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/Elcano_in/Zonas_in/DT18-2009.  Samuel Logan, "Iran’s Latin America Inroads," Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND SECURITY NETWORK INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND SECURITY NETWORK April 29, 2009, at http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?lng=en&id=99532.  "Ahmadinejad to visit Brazil on May 6 ," AFP, May 1, 2009.  Senhor_do_Servo, "As mentiras que eles contam," Estado Anarquista website, April 21, 2009, at http://www.estadoanarquista.org/blog/?p=1704.  See the site at http://almusawwir.org/resistance/.  Bill Cecil, "Anti-imperialists unite at Beirut Forum," International Action Center website, January 21, 2009, at http://www.iacenter.org/palestine/beirut-forum012509/.  César Montúfar, "El reciente acercamiento diplomático entre Ecuador e Irán ¿Gesto de afirmación soberana o tibio alineamiento geopolítico?" Draft paper prepared for the Conference Iran in Latin America: Threat or Axis of Annoyance, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., July 10, 2008.  "Estudiantes iraníes muestran su oposición a Ahmadeniyad (y a Hugo Chávez)," Noticias de Irán en Español, at http://noticiasdeiran.blogspot.com/2008/12/estudiantes-iranes-muestran-su-oposicin.html, December 19, 2008.  Torab Saleth, "Islamic revolution or counterrevolution," Weekly Worker, No. 756, February 12, 2009, at http://www.cpgb.org.uk/worker/756/islamic.html.  Ibid.  Yassamine Mather, "Iran: after the revolution," Index on Censorship, January 30, 2009, at http://www.indexoncensorship.org/2009/01/30/iran-thirty-years-on/.  Ibid.  Peter Tatchell, "Support the Iranian people, oppose Tehran’s clerical fascism," Red Pepper magazine, April 27, 2009 http://www.redpepper.org.uk/Support-the-Iranian-people-oppose.  Ibid.  This sub-chapter is based on Ali Akbar Mahdi, "Wake-up call. The student protests of July 1999," The Iranian, July 3, 2000, at http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2000/July/Students/index2.html.  "July 1999 Uprising and Student Movement's recent Developments," SMCCDI Public Statement, July 8, 2004, at http://daneshjoo.org/article/publish/printer_3205.shtml.  Iraj Gorgin, "Looking Back At Tehran's 1999 Student Protests," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, July 9, 2008, at http://www.rferl.org/articleprintview/1182717.html.  Mostafa Pour-Mohammadi was the deputy minister of the Ministry of Information in 1998, when agents of that ministry killed the five prominent intellectuals and political activists Darioush and Parvaneh Forohar, long-time political activists and leaders of the Mellat Party of Iran since 1951; Majid Sharif, Mohammad Mokhtari, and Jafar Pouyandeh, well-known dissident journalists and writers. Darioush and Parvaneh Forohar were killed on 22 November 1998 in their Tehran home; Sharif “disappeared” on 20 November; his body was found in a Tehran street on November 25; Mokhtari “disappeared” on 3 December; his body was found in a Tehran city morgue on 9 December; Pouyandeh “disappeared” on 9 December; his body was found on 13 December in a suburb of Tehran. See "Ministers of Murder: Iran’s New Security Cabinet, " Iran Press Service, December 16, 2005, at http://www.iran-press-service.com/ips/articles-2005/december-2005/hrw_iran_report_161205.shtml  "Free the detained Iranian student activists!," Education Not for Sale website, December 18, 2007, http://www.free-education.org.uk/?p=424. Education Not for Sale is a network of anti-capitalist students founded in September 2005.  Committee for Freedom of Political Prisoners in Iran, January 27, 2008, at http://studentsfreedom-campaign.blogspot.com/2008/01/committee-for-freedom-of-political.html.  The Committee for the Freedom of Political Prisoners in Iran, December 2, 2007, at http://bataillesocialiste.wordpress.com/2007/12/04/protest-the-arrest-of-students-in-iran/. See a long list of arrested leftists students at this address.  http://www.hopoi.org/bulletins.html#Jan19_2009.  "Execution of a teenage girl," BBC News, 27 July 2006.  "UN Secretary-General Urges Iran to Improve Human Rights," VOA News, 21 October 2008.  "Demand the immediate release of political prisoners in Iran, support the prisoners on hunger strike in Rejayi-Shahr prison," petition at http://www.petitiononline.com/RI5167/petition.html.  Tatchell, Support the Iranian people, oppose Tehran’s clerical fascism.  Montúfar, El reciente acercamiento diplomático entre Ecuador e Irán.  "Messages of solidarity to Hopi launch conference," HOPI website, December 2007, at http://www.hopoi.org/conference/solidarity.html.