In this chronology I have attempted to list all the known terrorist attacks against Jewish institutions and individuals, outside Israel since 1968, the year when Palestinian terrorists first began their campaigns beyond the Middle East. In doing so I have also included attacks against Israel-owned, or Israel-associated, targets or prominent individuals. This is because it has become obvious that, despite some statements to the contrary, Palestinian and Islamist terrorists generally make no distinction between the two. Neither do far right terrorists. It could be argued that Israelis were the main targets of the secular Palestinian terrorist groups, from 1968 until the 1980s, but even within this timespan, there were attacks against prominent Jewish leaders who were known to be involved in Zionist activity or fundraising for Israel. The 1973 attempted assassination of Marks & Spencer President Edward J Sieff, and the hijacking of the Air France plane to Entebbe, where Israeli and Jewish passengers were separated from the others, clearly indicates that there is no distinction in the terrorist’s mind. I have also included some terrorist acts that targeted Israel, but which originated abroad, as they indicate a terrorism capability and intention within the originating country. Islamist terrorists, particularly those whose organisations trace their ideological descent from the Muslim Brotherhood and the teachings of its post-war leader Sayid Qutb, have at their heart a deep-seated religious antisemitism which sees Jews as the rejecter of the Prophet who are all to be killed on the day of redemption, and also as the instigators and promoters of a worldwide conspiracy to take over the world. Neo-Nazi terrorists in Latin America and Europe, and white supremacist terrorists influenced by the leaderless resistance ideology of Louis Beam and William Pierce, likewise make no distinction between Jews and Israelis. To their collective mind both represent either a lower species of humanity or the Zionist conspiracy to rule the world. Far left terrorists similarly have made no distinction. The victims included in the chronology are therefore Jewish and Israeli institutions, Israeli officials, Jewish community leaders and members. Purely criminal attacks, where no antisemitic motive was apparent or discerned, have been excluded. The chronology also includes aborted attempts, but there may have been others which have not come to public notice. It is possible that interdiction at some midway point in the planning stages may have aborted some terrorist attacks. Statements by the Director General of the British Security Service, Assistant Commissioners of the Metropolitan Police Service, the Director of the Israel General Security Service and others have been made during the past twelve months in which they have stated that attacks may have been aborted as a consequence of interdiction or of defensive operations by law enforcement and other agencies. Statements made following arrests in several countries have also indicated that terrorist plots in advanced stages against Jewish targets have been foiled, eg the al-Tawhid plot in Germany during the spring of 2003, and the May 2002 arrests in Morocco of al-Qaeda-affiliated Saudi nationals, who were planning to attack members of the Casablanca Jewish community.
Argentina 35 Australia 6 Austria 18 Belarus 1 Belgium 16 Bolivia 4 Canada 4 Chile 4 Columbia 5 Costa Rica 1 Cyprus 8 Denmark 6 Ecuador 3 Egypt 7 El Salvador 1 Finland 1 France 52 Germany 31 Greece 16 Guatemala 4 Holland 5 Hungary 1 India 1 Iran 2 Ireland 1 Italy 31 Japan 1 Kenya 4 Korea 1 Lebanon 1 Malta 2 Mexico 3 Morocco 3 Panama 3 Paraguay 2 Peru 10 Philippines 3 Portugal 2 Romania 1 Russia 5 Singapore 3 South Africa 3 Spain 6 Sweden 4 Switzerland 7 Thailand 3 Tunisia 2 Turkey 19 Uganda 1 UK 25 Ukraine 1 Uruguay 1 USA 32 Venezuela 2
Aborted attempt/foiled plot 102 Arson 2 Carbombs 14 Firebombs 5 Hand grenades 8 Hijack 4 Missiles/rockets 2 Molotov cocktails 10 Parcel/letter bomb 22 Petrol bomb 2 Other bombs 162 Shooting 79 Stabbing 1
19th of April Movement (M-19) 2 Abu Nidal Organisation/Black Lebanon/Black September 26 Action Directe 4 Al-Fatah 1 Al-Qaeda 7 Al-Tawhid 1 Anti-Zionist Autonomy 1 Arab Commando Group 1 Arab Nationalist Youth for the Liberation of Palestine (ANYLP) 1 Arab Organisation of May 15 (Abu Ibrahim Group) 13 Armed Islamic Group (GIA) (Algeria) 2 Armed People’s Units 1 Armed Propaganda Union Anti-Camp David Front 1 Aryan Nations 1 Autonomous Collective for Intervention Against Zionist Presence in France and Against the Israel-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1 Baader-Meinhof Group 2 Black Star Group 1 Christian anti-Zionist Group 1 Commando Anticommunista Mendoza 1 Commando for a Free Palestine 1 Communist Armed Group 1 Copernic Two 1 Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) 1 Deutsche Aktions Gruppen 1 Egyptian Awakening Group 1 Egyptian Revolution Faction 2 Ejercito Revolucionario Del Pueblo (Popular Revolutionary Army) 2 Free Lebanon of Foreigners Organisation 1 French National Liberation 1 Groupe Action Jeunesse 1 Heroes of Palestine 1 Hizbollah 5 International Solidarity 1 International Workers Organisation (Portugal) 1 Islamic Jihad 5 Islamic Revenge Organisation 1 Jama’ah al-Islamiyah 1 January 15 Organisation 1 Kameradenschaft Sud 1 League of French Combatants Against Jewish Conquest 1 Lebanese Armed Revolution Faction (LARF) 3 Lebanese Shiite Group 1 Lone Arabs or Palestinians 25 Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front 1 National European Facists (FNE) 3 National Front of Palestine Students 1 National Liberation Army (ELN) Ernesto Che Guevara Nucleus in Solidarity with the Palestinian People 1 Neo-Nazis 12 No claim for responsibility/Unknown 171 Organisation for the Defence of Europe 1 Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) 1 Palestinian Party in Mexico 1 Partisans of God (Anar al Allah) 1 People’s League for Free Palestine 1 Persevering Workers of Islam 1 PLO/ Fatah/ Force 17/Abu Musa/Fatah Black September 6 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC) 9 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) 31 Popular Struggle Front terrorists, (Samir Ghawsha) 2 Red Brigades 1 Revolution of Christians Against the Jewish Enemy 1 Revolutionary Cells 1 Revolutionary Perspective Group 1 Russian National Unity Group 1 Saiqa/Eagles of the Palestinian Revolution 7 Salafiya Jihadiya 1 Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia 1 Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) 3 Sons of the Land 1 Spanish Nationalist Socialist Party 1 Tel el-Z’Ater 1 The Call of Jesus Christ 1 The Order 1 Toffah Group 1 Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) 1 Turkish Hizbollah 1 Turkish Liberation Army 1 Wadi Haddad (split from PFLP) 1 World Church of the Creator 2 Young Muslims Organisation 1
1968 2 1969 14 1970 12 1971 6 1972 17 1973 25 1974 3 1975 8 1976 18 1977 3 1978 8 1979 20 1980 22 1981 20 1982 67 1983 17 1984 4 1985 22 1986 9 1987 3 1988 17 1989 6 1990 19 1991 8 1992 6 1993 2 1994 11 1995 1 1996 7 1997 3 1998 3 1999 8 2000 5 2001 1 2002 8 2003 7
It might be argued that any analysis of the list of incidents is superfluous given the high state of alert on Jewish premises throughout the world and the fact that law enforcement and security agencies now devote the majority of their efforts to thwarting terrorism. Additionally it could also be argued that the primary focus of the ‘new’ terrorism of the Islamist Jihadis and the far right is against the US and its allies such as the UK and Israel anyway. This is in contradistinction with the Palestinian secular groups’ terrorism which predominantly was anti-Israel. Therefore it would be more profitable to concentrate resources and analysis on prevention of terrorist acts from whatever source. This however would be to miss the point. There is an apparent evolving modus operandi, which bears careful study in order to spot likely future attacks, pinpoint likely soft targets and most importantly determine the political, religious and cultural milieu from which terrorism develops. There is also abundant evidence that terrorist groups co-operate and that this co-operation cuts across ideological and religious boundaries. Islamists are known to have sought contact with organised crime and with the far right, as have the Iranians and their surrogates in years past, and close analysis of one group’s evolving anti-Jewish ideology shows it to be frequently influenced by that of another group. This might lead to terrorism by proxy or joint operations, as has happened in the past. Analysis by country, by group or by modus operandi might also be unproductive in that it might be misleading: the groups active in the 1970s are no longer active or have renounced terrorism now, or countries which suffered a high incidence of terrorist acts in the past are those which have now tightened their security and afford a higher degree of protection to Jewish and Israeli targets. However by eliminating those countries which previously were targeted and which now have better security arrangements provides a clearer perspective on those remaining. If these contain Jewish communities, and their governments provide a low level of protective cover, they might become future targets. Nevertheless, too close a scrutiny of Islamist terrorism post September 11 could easily lead government agencies to overlook growing threats from other areas. Such was nearly the case in Germany this September when the German authorities admitted they had dropped their guard as far as neo-Nazi terrorism was concerned. What does seem particularly worthwhile however is to note new tendencies and to factor them into security planning. Thus for example the most devastating terrorist acts in recent years have been by means of car bombs or bombs delivered in bags and triggered remotely by suicide bombers. This compares with the use of firearms and letterbombs during the 1960s and 1970s. This has clear indications for security planners. Jewish institutions need to be protected against cars parking outside or ramming entrances. Likewise personnel searching should be carried out before visitors gain entry to the interiors of buildings, preferably when passing through an exterior security cordon. This would not preclude scanning incoming mail for letter or parcel bombs, nor ensuring the security of prominent figures within Jewish communities, but the trend however is clearly towards delivering unsophisticated though lethal bombs made from materials easily purchased in the open market and put together by non-specialists who easily access the know-how from the Internet or from manuals purchased on the open market. Analysis by perpetrating groups too soon after attacks may provide a less than satisfactory analysis. Firstly, claims have sometimes been made by groups to gain publicity or to hide their real identities or affiliations. Second, it is known that groups co-operate even across ideological and religious barriers. Thirdly a claim for responsibility might hide the commissioning agency, which in some cases have been states such as Syria (eg in the case of the Nezar Hindawi plot) or Iran (eg the 1992 and 1994 attacks in Argentina). Lastly, as noted above, the groups which were the most serious threat are often no longer in existence, such as the Abu Nidal Organisation, or have foresworn terrorism, at least beyond the Israel/Gaza/West Bank theatre of operations, such as the PLO and PFLP. What the above data does unequivocally indicate is that Jewish communities have faced an extensive terrorism threat, and that it is a continuing one. The year by year breakdown suggests that although the mid 1980s were the period with the highest number of incidents terrorism continues to pose a problem. The figures for the past five years clearly indicate no diminution in the threat, and indeed the body count has grown as the modus operandi has changed. It might have been suggested that the Madrid and Oslo peace accords would have resulted in the decline of Middle East-originating terrorism, but while that from Palestinian secular groups diminished, that from Islamist groups has taken its place. The renunciation of terrorism by the so-called Alliance of Palestinian Forces beyond the immediate Israel/West Bank/Gaza theatre of operations clearly led to a stop from this, the hitherto most active sector. Likewise terrorism from leftist groups declined as they themselves were destroyed by states’ forces or renounced the use of violence. Parallel to all this has been the threat which Islamist groups have come to represent. There have been no attacks by Palestinian secular groups nor leftist groups since Madrid, apart from those in London in 1994 which were by Palestinian students only loosely connected to a terrorist organisation, as they came to realise the futility of such attacks which did great harm to their cause. Islamist groups however have no such compunction. They regard themselves as being at war with the west, the USA, Israel and the Jews. New areas of threat are also emerging. Militant environmentalists and animal rights activists have turned increasingly to terrorism in the US and the UK. Although they have not yet attacked Jewish targets there is emerging evidence that the so-called left has adopted anti-Jewish ideologies. They too may come to represent a physical rather than an ideological threat once again, as they did during the 1980s.
26 December 1968, Athens An El Al plane about to depart for Paris was attacked by Mather Suleiman and Mahmoud Mohammed, both members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They threw grenades and sprayed the plane with machine guns killing one and injuring two others. They were caught, tried and subsequently convicted. 23 July 1968, Rome Members of the PFLP hijacked an El Al plane en route from Rome to Israel, only releasing the passengers after three weeks. 8 February 1969, Zurich An El Al plane was machine-gunned by members of the PFLP as it stood on the tarmac at Kloten airport prior to departure for Tel Aviv. The pilot was killed. The El Al security guard jumped from the plane and killed one of the attackers, and the police caught the other three who were subsequently tried and convicted. 22 May 1969, Copenhagen Three members of the PFLP were arrested and charged with plotting to assassinate former Israel Prime Minister David Ben Gurion. 18 August 1969, London The PFLP claimed responsibility for explosions at Marks and Spencer stores in London. 18 July 1969, Copenhagen PFLP claimed responsibility for bombs, found and dismantled, in the Israeli government tourist office. 23 August 1969, London A hand grenade was thrown into the office of Zim Shipping, injuring one person and extensively damaging property. Responsibility was claimed by the PFLP. 23 August 1969, Izmir Two DFLP (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine) terrorists were wounded, one fatally, when bombs they intended to use against the Israel commercial pavilion at a trade fair in Izmir, Turkey exploded prematurely. 23 August 1969, Tehran An explosion in the Jewish school in Tehran caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 1 September 1969, Athens A TWA plane bound for Tel Aviv was hijacked by two PFLP terrorists. The plane was intercepted en route by Israel airforce planes but eventually landed in Damascus where the Israel-bound passengers were released. 8 September 1969, Hague, Bonn & Brussels The Israel embassies in the Hague and Bonn, and the Brussels office of Israel’s El Al airline were attacked within minutes of each other, with bombs and grenades. Three El Al employees and a customer were injured in the Brussels attack, while none were hurt in the other two bombings. There was no claim for responsibility. 9 November 1969, Berlin A bomb was discovered in the Jewish community centre in west Berlin and was defused before it could explode. Responsibility was claimed by the PFLP. 27 November 1969, Athens Two PSF (Popular Struggle Front) terrorists threw grenades into the El Al office in Athens wounding fourteen persons. Both were arrested but subsequently released in the wake of the hijacking of an Olympic Airways plane (22 July 1970, Jordan). 12 December 1969, Berlin A bomb discovered at the El Al office was dismantled before exploding. Other bombs were found near the America House and the American Officers Club. Responsibility was claimed by the Baader Meinhoff and PFLP. 21 December 1969, Athens Three PFLP terrorists were arrested shortly before they planned to attack a TWA plane en route from Israel. They were later released following the hijack of the Olympic Airways plane (22 July 1970). 25 December 1969, Bracknell Trefor Owen Williams, a former British army officer and subsequently a neo-Nazi activist, and Ronald Gorman Hamman, stood trial in Bracknell, Berkshire charged with attempting to blow up an Israeli plane on behalf of al-Fatah. A large amount of explosives were found in Williams’ home and he was subsequently convicted and imprisoned. The charges against Hamman were dropped when he agreed to give evidence against Williams. 18 January 1970, Beirut A bomb outside the Khaddouri-Louise-Zilkha Jewish school in Beirut caused extensive damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 January 1970, London Fadl Muhssen Saleh was arrested at London airport as he was about to board an Israel-bound plane. A machine-gun and ammunition were found in his luggage and grenades were subsequently also found at Victoria railway station in a holdall in the left luggage office. 10 February 1970, Munich Eight people were wounded following a machine-gun attack by PFLP terrorists on the Tel Aviv-bound El Al aircraft at Munich airport. Three Arabs were subsequently expelled from Germany. 21 February 1970, Zurich The PFLP-GC claimed responsibility for blowing up an in-flight Swiss Air plane bound for Tel Aviv which caused the death of all forty-seven passengers and crew. 24 February 1970, Frankfurt PFLP-GC claimed responsibility for parcel bombs posted to Israel but de-activated before they could explode. 7 March 1970, Guatemala A hand grenade tossed into the garden of the Israel Honorary Consul’s residence exploded causing damage but not injuries. The police stated that an unidentified local pro-Arab group was responsible. 24 April 1970, Istanbul An explosion in the El Al office caused damage but no casualties. Responsibility was claimed by the PSF. 4 May 1970, Asuncion Two armed Palestinians broke into the office of the Israel consulate in Asuncion, Paraguay and started to shoot at the employees. An Israeli secretary was killed and a local worker injured in the attack. 6 September 1970, London The PFLP attempted to hijack an Israel-bound El Al plane. El Al security officers killed one terrorist and wounded another (Leila Khaled). Khaled was subsequently released by British authorities. 8 September 1970, Athens A sabotage attempt against the El Al office was thwarted when two terrorists were arrested, but later released in the wake of the Jordan 1970 Olympic Airways hijacking. It is not known to which group the terrorists belonged. 6 October 1970, London Letter bombs addressed to the El Al office and Israel embassy were discovered and defused before they could explode. No group claimed responsibility. 15 October 1970, Berlin Letter bombs were posted to the Israel Masada exhibition in west Berlin. No group claimed responsibility. 19 April 1971, New Jersey A bomb outside a conservative synagogue in New Jersey caused extensive damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 May 1971, Istanbul Israel consul Efraim Elrom was assassinated in Istanbul. The Turkish Liberation Army claimed responsibility. 30 July 1971, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded outside the office of a Jewish-owned firm causing considerable damage but no casualties. The Trotskyite Ejercito Revolucionario Del Pueblo – Popular Revolutionary Army – claimed responsibility. 30 August 1971, Rosario A bomb exploded outside the Hebraica club in Rosario, Argentina. The police allege that it was the work of the ERP (Ejercito Revolucionario Del Pueblo – Popular Revolutionary Army) but they subsequently denied responsibility. 20 September 1971, New York A bomb was discovered and dismantled in the Great Neck synagogue on the first day of Rosh Hashanah. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 December 1971, Austria The PFLP-GC claimed responsibility for letter bombs sent to recipients in Israel which were defused before causing casualties. 16 August 1972, Rome The PFLP-GC claimed responsibility for the attempt to blow up an Israel-bound El Al plane by means of a booby-trap record player brought aboard unwittingly by two British women tourists. 5 September 1972, Munich Fatah Black September terrorists seized eleven Israeli athletes in the Olympic village in Munich, Germany. A bungled rescue attempt by West German authorities resulted in the deaths of nine of the hostages and five terrorists. 10 September 1972, Brussels An employee of the Israel embassy was assaulted and wounded in Brussels. Fatah Black September claimed responsibility. 11 September 1972, Geneva Israeli and Jewish organisations received five letter bombs which exploded but caused no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 September 1972, Amsterdam Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for letter bombs posted from Amsterdam to Israel and Israeli missions around the world. The bombs were defused before they could cause damage. 19 September 1972, London The Agricultural Counsellor at the Israel embassy was murdered by letter bomb. No claim for responsibility was made. 4 October 1972, Malaysia Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for a wave of letter bombs posted from Malaysia to Israel and Jewish organisations in Rhodesia and New York. Several of the bombs exploded in a New York post office wounding an employee. 13 October 1972, Paris A bomb was dismantled in the El Al office before it could explode. No claim for responsibility was made. 17 October 1972, Rotterdam A bomb was discovered in the Zim line office in Rotterdam and dismantled before it could explode. No claim for responsibility was made. 23 October 1972, Amsterdam The PLO representative in Holland was arrested with letter bombs in his possession. He was subsequently released by the police. 30 October 1972, Singapore Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for a letter bomb sent to Israel from Singapore, which exploded but caused no damage. 4 November 1972, Frankfurt A letter bomb was received by a Zionist youth organisation which exploded but caused little damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 11 November 1972, London Letter bombs were received by Jewish organisations which exploded causing one injury. No claim for responsibility was made. 21 November 1972, Toronto Letter bombs were received by prominent Jews which exploded but caused no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 7 December 1972, Singapore Letter bombs were sent to public institutions in Israel from Singapore, for which the PFLP-GC claimed responsibility. 24 December 1972, London A Fatah-Black September terrorist was arrested in London carrying weapons and explosives which the police later stated were to be used against Israel embassies in Scandinavia. 28 December 1972, Bangkok Fatah-Black September terrorists stormed the Israel embassy holding six employees hostage. They were later released and allowed to leave Thailand. 1 January 1973, Paris Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for a bomb found outside the Jewish Agency building which exploded but caused little damage and no casualties. 9 January 1973, Cyprus Four PFLP terrorists were taken off a Haifa-bound ship. Cypriot police later announced that they planned a terrorist attack in Israel. 9 January 1973, Schoenau Three Fatah-Black September terrorists were arrested following a foiled attack against the Schoenau castle in Austria which acted as a transit centre for Soviet Jewish immigrants. 24 January 1973, Athens Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for a wave of letter bombs sent from Greece to Israeli consulates in Chile and Australia, and a Rabbi in Canada. 26 January 1973, Madrid Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for the murder of an Israeli national. 26 January 1973, Vienna Three Fatah-Black September terrorists were arrested while crossing the Italian border en route to an attack on a transit hostel for Soviet Jewish immigrants in Vienna. 29 January 1973, Turkey The Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for letter bombs sent to Israel which exploded but caused little damage. 31 January 1973, Rome Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for letter bombs sent to the Israel embassy in Rwanda from Rome. 5 February 1973, Rome Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for letter bombs sent to the Israeli embassy in Guatemala. 8 February 1973, West Germany Fatah-Black September claimed responsibility for letter bombs sent to the Israeli embassy in Bangui, Central African Republic. 6 March 1973, New York Police announced that they had discovered car bombs outside the El Al terminal at JFK airport and at branches of the Israel Discount Bank and Bank Leumi. 21 March 1973, Singapore An explosion at the office of Zim Shipping Lines caused extensive damage and wounded one person. Responsibility was claimed by Fatah-Black September. 4 April 1973, Rome Two PFLP terrorists were caught attempting to attack an El Al plane at Rome airport. They were subsequently released from custody and deported. 9 April 1973, Cyprus Seven ANYLP terrorists were caught attempting to attack an Israel-bound Arkia plane. They were subsequently released. 27 April 1973, Rome An El Al employee was killed by a terrorist who was arrested but released two years later. It is not known to which group he belonged. 29 April 1973, Costa Rica A Molotov cocktail was thrown at a synagogue wall causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 7 May 1973, Paris Two armed terrorist attempted to seize a room overlooking the Israel embassy from which they could attack embassy staff. It is not known to which group they belonged. 1 July 1973, Washington Members of the Fatah-Black September, shot and killed Yosef Ayalon, an Israeli air attach? in Washington DC. 19 July 1973, Athens An attempt by PFLP terrorists to attack the El Al office was thwarted. They were captured and subsequently deported. 5 September 1973, Rome Fatah-Black September terrorists were arrested shortly before they attacked an El Al plane at Rome airport with SA7 missiles. They were subsequently released. 12 September 1973, Seoul Letter bombs were sent to Israel from South Korea by Fatah Black September but were intercepted. 28 September 1973, Marchegg As-Saiqa terrorists boarded a train transporting Soviet Jewish emigrants at the Austrian border and held three of them hostage until the Austrian government agreed to close the Schoenau Castle transit facilities. The terrorists were subsequently released. 19 November 1973, Paris Thirteen members of the PFLP, Algerian and Turkish terrorist groups were arrested near Paris shortly before their planned kidnap of an Israeli diplomat’s family and attack on the Israel embassy. They were tried and convicted but subsequently released. 14 December 1973, London Letter bombs posted from England were discovered in Israel shortly after similar bombs posted in Holland and Switzerland were also discovered. 30 December 1973, London J Edward Sieff, President of Marks & Spencer, was wounded in an assassination attempt at his St Johns Wood home. Claimed by Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (‘Carlos’) on behalf of the PFLP. 24 January 1974, London Explosives were thrown at the Bank Hapoalim, Mayfair branch, resulting in extensive damage. Claimed by PFLP. 3 August 1974, Paris Three car bombs exploded outside the offices of the Fonds Social Juive, the pro-Israel Aurore newspaper and the right-wing Minute newspaper. A fourth car bomb failed to explode outside the office of the Israel Purchasing Mission. The PFLP claimed responsibility. 26 August 1974, Frankfurt PFLP claimed responsibility for explosions outside the Israel government tourist office which caused damage but no casualties. 13 January 1975, Paris PFLP terrorists shot rockets at an El Al plane parked at Paris Airport. They missed the Israel plane but hit a nearby Yugoslav plane wounding three people. 16 January 1975, Paris Molotov cocktails were thrown at a building mistakenly believed to be the headquarters of Jewish organisations in France causing extensive damage. Responsibility was claimed by the previously unknown Arab Commando Group. 19 January 1975, Paris PFLP terrorists attacked an El Al plane which resulted in a gun battle with the police in which twenty people were wounded. Subsequently the terrorists surrendered and were deported. 2 April 1975, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded outside the Yeshurun synagogue causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 15 September 1975, Paris A grenade thrown into a Jewish-owned drugstore killed two people and injured fifteen others. Responsibility was claimed by the previously unknown Organisation for the Defence of Europe. 19 September 1975, Cordoba A bomb exploded outside a Jewish-owned bank in Cordoba, Argentina, causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 21 September 1975, Mendoza A bomb outside the Jewish community building in Mendoza near Buenos Aires caused damage but no casualties. Responsibility was claimed by the Commando Anticommunista Mendoza. 11 December 1975, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded outside the Jewish Cultural Association causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 25 January 1976, Nairobi Five terrorists from the Wadi Haddad faction of the PFLP were caught attempting to attack an El Al plane. They were deported to Israel. 8 February 1976, Berlin PFLP claimed responsibility for a bomb which exploded at the Israel Bonds office causing damage but no casualties. 29 April 1976, Paris A bomb exploded outside the Rashi synagogue causing damage but no casualties. Responsibility was claimed by the Groupe Action Jeunesse. 24 May 1976, Liechtenburg Two bombs at the home of Rabbi Garb destroyed the home but caused no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made but the South African police believe that a right wing terrorist group was responsible. 25 May 1976, Buenos Aires A bomb outside the Yezitlowski Jewish Cultural Society caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 26 May 1976, Buenos Aires A bomb outside a Jewish club caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 21 June 1976, Buenos Aires Bombs outside Jewish shops in the Once district caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made but the bombings followed an antisemitic public rally organised by the right wing Peronistas. 21 June 1976, Mendoza Bombs outside Jewish-owned shops in Mendoza near Buenos Aires caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 27 June 1976, Entebbe Members of the Baader-Meinhof Group and the PFLP seized an Air France plane and its 258 passengers, forcing it to land eventually in Entebbe, Uganda, where they separated the Israeli and Jewish passengers from others who were released. One passenger was killed in the successful Israeli rescue operation. 27 June 1976, Buenos Aires A bomb inside a Jewish-owned bookshop caused severe damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 11 August 1976, Istanbul The PFLP launched an attack on the El Al offices in Istanbul Airport, Turkey. Four were killed in the attack and twenty others injured. The two terrorists convicted of the attack subsequently escaped from prison in January 1979. 22 September 1976, Paris A bomb outside the home of Chief Rabbi Jacob Kaplan caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made but the Rabbi had reported a threatening letter some time previously. 24 September 1976, Bombay A member of the Dutch Red Youth terrorist organisation working with the PFLP was arrested together with others prior to an attack on Tel Aviv-bound flights. 27 September 1976, Cordoba A bomb at the Max Nordau School and a nearby synagogue in Cordoba, Argentina, caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 September 1976, Paris Cars belonging to the two sons of Pierre Bloch, President of the International League Against Racism (LICRA), were destroyed by bombs. Responsibility was claimed by the National Front of Palestine Students. 4 October 1976, Cordoba A bomb outside a Jewish-owned bank caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 6 November 1976, Istanbul A bomb exploded at the El Al building causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 27 November 1976, Buenos Aires Two bombs at the Shalom school and a nearby synagogue caused damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 12 June 1977, Tehran Two terrorists were killed in exchange of fire after they had attempted to break into the office of the Jewish Federation in Tehran. It is not known to which group they belonged. 20 November 1977, Cannes A bomb was defused in the hall where a meeting of the French Israel Association was due to take place. No claim for responsibility was made. 27 November 1977, Paris Tel el-Z’Ater terrorist group claimed responsibility for an explosion at the Paris branch of Bank Leumi, which caused damage but no casualties. 8 January 1978, Brussels Police discovered two loaded rocket launchers aimed at the Israel embassy in Brussels. The missiles were dismantled. It is believed the Wadi Haddad faction of the PFLP were responsible. 1 February 1978, Paris A bomb exploded outside the Paris branch of the Israel Discount Bank causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 20 May 1978, Paris Three PFLP terrorists attacked passengers waiting at the El Al terminal at Orly Airport killing two and wounding two others. The terrorists were killed in the shoot-out with the police. 20 June 1978, Frankfurt A bomb in the Israel Agrexko Frankfurt office caused extensive damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 20 August 1978, London Fahad Mihyi, a member of the Wadi Haddad Palestinian terrorist group, led an armed attack on a coach containing El Al aircrew as they disembarked at the Europa Hotel in Mayfair. He was subsequently convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. 11 October 1978, Rome A bomb was diffused outside the Great synagogue in Rome on Yom Kippur. No claim for responsibility was made. 15 October 1978, Berlin Bombs were discovered at the Jewish community centre and at a Jewish-owned store in Berlin. They were diffused before they could explode. As-Saiqa claimed responsibility. 17 December 1978, Paris A bomb exploded outside the office of the Betar youth organisation causing damage but no casualties. A claim for responsibility was made to the French press news agency on behalf of the French National Liberation Front which stated it was an act of resistance against Jewish dictatorship. 7 January 1979, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded outside a Jewish school causing extensive damage to the school and nearby houses but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 11 January 1979, Barcelona Shots were fired at the Barcelona synagogue causing minor damage but no casualties. Responsibility was claimed by the Spanish National Socialist Party. 28 February 1979, Olivos A bomb went off outside a Jewish school in Olivos near Buenos Aires, Argentina causing moderate damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 21 March 1979, Paris Members of the Palestinian, but Syrian-directed terrorist group, Saiqa, wounded twenty Jewish students in two bombings of a kosher restaurant in rue de Medicis in Paris. 27 March 1979, Paris More than thirty people were wounded, twelve of them seriously following an explosion in a Jewish students’ caf? in the Latin quarter. Two groups claimed responsibility: the Autonomous Collective for Intervention Against Zionist Presence in France and Against the Israel-Egyptian Peace Treaty, and the League of French Combatants Against Jewish Conquest. This latter group was responsible for a series of other explosions, which caused no casualties, in March and April. 15 March 1979, Zurich A bomb outside the entrance to the main Zurich synagogue caused extensive damage. No claim for responsibility was made but swastikas and antisemitic inscriptions were daubed on nearby walls. 3 April 1979, Frankfurt A bomb exploded in Frankfurt airport airmail distribution centre injuring ten employees. The parcel in which it was hidden had been addressed to Tel Aviv and was due to have been sent by El Al flight. No claim for responsibility was made. The police estimated that the bomb may have exploded in mid air. 5 April 1979, Nicosia A bomb exploded outside the Israel embassy causing damage but no casualties. As-Saiqa claimed responsibility. 7 April 1979, Paris A bomb was discovered in a motorcycle parked outside a cinema which was hosting a Jewish culture week. Saiqa claimed responsibility. 8 April 1979, Ankara A bomb exploded outside the Israel embassy causing damage but no casualties. Saiqa claimed responsibility. 16 April 1979, Brussels Members of the PFLP failed in an attempt to take over an El Al aircraft at Zaventeim airport, but succeeded in wounding twelve people when they attacked the airport restaurant and visitors’ viewing area with hand grenades. 22 April 1979, Vienna A bomb caused extensive damage to a building which housed a synagogue and several Jewish families. There were no casualties. A claim for responsibility was made by the Eagles of the Revolution (Saiqa). 7 May 1979, Buenos Aires A bomb outside a synagogue caused extensive damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 14 May, 1979, Olivos A bomb exploded outside a former Jewish school causing some damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 16 May 1979, Cipoletti A bomb went off outside the synagogue in Cipoletti near Buenos Aires causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 24 May 1979, Buenos Aires A bomb went off outside the entrance of a synagogue in Buenos Aires causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 22 August 1979,Cordoba A bomb outside a Jewish-owned bank in Cordoba, Argentina, caused extensive damage but no casualties. Although no claim for responsibility was made the attack was considered by the local Jewish community to be part of an ongoing antisemitic campaign by the local Jewish community. 29 August 1979, Milan A bomb exploded outside the Israel Italian bank in Milan causing slight damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made but an anonymous telephone call to the Italian news agency stated that it was intended as a warning to Jews and Communists following the escape from custody of convicted war criminal Herbert Kapler. 13 November 1979, Lisbon The Portuguese International Workers Organisation terrorist group wounded the Israel Ambassador and killed an embassy guard in an assassination attempt. A policeman and passer-by were also injured. 12 December 1979, San Salvador A bomb exploded at the Israel embassy causing structural damage but no injuries. The police stated that a left wing terrorist group was responsible. 2 January 1980, Istanbul Abraham Elazar, the manager of the local El Al office was shot and killed by two men who got out of a car that had blocked his way. The Marxist Leninist Armed Propaganda Union Anti-Camp David Front and the Sons of the Land later claimed responsibility. 18 February 1980, Rome One man was wounded when two homemade bombs exploded outside the Rome offices of El Al (and Lufthansa and Swiss Air). The Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia later claimed responsibility. 3 March 1980, Madrid A Spanish lawyer, Adolfo Cotello, was murdered by mistake. His Abu Nidal Organisation assassins believed him to be the Spanish Jewish leader Max Mazin. 19 April 1980, Esslingen A bomb exploded outside the house of a member of the Esslingen City Council in Germany causing considerable damage but no injuries. The neo-Nazi Deutsche Aktions Gruppen claimed responsibility and stated it was retaliation for an exhibition on Auschwitz which had recently taken place in the city hall. Several months later a bomb went off outside the exhibition itself. 21 April 1980, Zurich An Arab terrorist hid a bomb in the luggage of a West German citizen boarding an El Al flight from Zurich to Tel Aviv. He was apprehended by Israeli security agents and the device exploded in the police lab at the airport before it could be defused. There were no injuries. 29 April 1980, Cairo A bomb exploded in a Cairo synagogue causing damage but no casualties. The Egyptian Awakening group claimed responsibility. 22 June 1980, Stockholm Swedish police arrested PFLP-GC terrorists and Swedish nationals who planned an attack on an El Al office in Copenhagen. 5 July 1980, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded in the ORT school in Buenos Aires causing considerable damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 5 July 1980, Buenos Aires A bomb was dismantled by police at the Chaim Nachman Bialik School in Buenos Aires. No claim for responsibility was made. 25 July 1980, Brussels The Israel Commercial Attache in Brussels, Yosef Halachi, was assassinated by members of the Abu Nidal Organisation. 27 July 1980, Antwerp Members of the Abu Nidal Organisation carried out a grenade attack on an Antwerp synagogue killing a child and wounding twenty others. Two members of the group, Nasir Sa’id Abdel Wahib and Nihad Declas, were subsequently tried and convicted by the Belgian authorities. Declas told police interrogators that he had planned a further hand grenade attack on El Al passengers at Brussels Zaventem Airport. 29 July 1980, Istanbul A bomb in the offices of the Chief Rabbinate caused damage but no casualties. Responsibility was claimed by the Young Muslims Organisation which stated in leaflets found near the scene: “we shall uproot the scoundrels from the land of Islam. We shall settle our accounts with the Jews”. 7 August 1980, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded outside the Jerusalem synagogue in Buenos Aires causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 September 1980, Paris The National European Facists (FNE) claimed responsibility for machine-gunning a synagogue and other Jewish targets in Paris over the course of a 48-hour period. No injuries were reported. 3 October 1980, Paris Four congregants were killed and twelve others injured in a bomb attack on the rue Copernic synagogue. Although responsibility was claimed by the National European Fascists (FNE), the police investigation concluded that Palestinian terrorists were involved. 5 October 1980, Paris A Jewish-owned shop was bombed injuring one person. Responsibility was claimed by the National European Fascists (FNE) group. 4 November 1980, Paris Shots were fired from a passing car narrowly missing the two policemen guarding the office of B’nai B’rith International. Damage was caused to the building but there were no injuries. Responsibility was claimed by the Christian anti-Zionist Group. 25 November 1980, Paris Edwin and Michele Dwek, Jewish owners of an international travel tour agency which specialised in trips to Israel, were shot and killed by a man of Arab-looking appearance. Subsequent police investigation noted that the weapon used Subsequent police investigations noted that the weapon used was the same as that used in the assassination attempt against former Iranian premier Shahpour Bakhtiar. 19 December 1980, Erlangen Shlomo Levin, a former high-ranking Israel army officer, and his companion Freida Poeschke, were assassinated in what the German police subsequently described as a political assassination. Levin was a prominent member of the local Jewish community. No claim for responsibility was made. 21 December 1980, Esslingen A bomb exploded at a civic centre in Esslingen, Germany, which was housing an exhibition on Auschwitz. The police stated that neo-Nazis had been responsible. 29 December 1980, Maracaibo A car bomb exploded in the car park of a Jewish-owned shop in Maracaibo, Venezuela causing extensive damage but no injuries. Leaflets found nearby stated that “this is the Jews last Christmas in Palestine”, but no claim for responsibility was made. 31 December 1980, Nairobi A bomb at the Norfolk Hotel killed 16 and injured 87 people. The hotel was owned by a prominent member of the local Jewish community who had close ties to Israel. Although the PLO and PFLP both disclaimed responsibility the subsequent police investigation suggested that the bomber, Qaddura Mohammed Abd Al-Hamid, had been both a member of Fatah and the PFLP. The police speculated that the attack was in retaliation for Kenyan aid to Israel in arresting two PFLP-associated West German terrorists who had intended to shoot down an El Al plane in 1976. 14 January 1981, Stockholm The government announced the deportation of four Palestinians connected to the PFLP-GC in connection with terrorist plots against the country’s Jewish community and Israeli institutions. A further eight members of the same group were arrested but not deported 16 February 1981, Cairo Three Fatah terrorists and two Egyptian nationals were arrested on suspicion of planning to attack the Israel embassy and the synagogue. 25 April 1981, Lima An explosion outside the entrance to the Jewish school in Lima, Peru caused little damage and no casualties. No claim of responsibility was made. 1 May 1981, Vienna Heinz Nittel, President of the Austrian-Israeli friendship league, was shot and killed by members of the Abu Nidal Organisation who had also threatened to kill Austria’s Jewish Chancellor, Bruno Kreisky. Bahij Mohammed Younis was subsequently convicted of the assassination and sentenced to life imprisonment. 15 May 1981, Rome A bomb exploded outside the El Al office causing extensive damage but no injuries. Responsibility was claimed by the Arab Organisation of 15 May. 16 May 1981, Istanbul A bomb exploded outside the El Al office causing extensive damage but no injuries. Responsibility was claimed by the May 15 Arab Organisation for the Liberation of Palestine. 15 June 1981, London A letter bomb sent to Greville Janner MP, President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, was intercepted by the Post Office. No claim for responsibility was made. 12 July 1981, New York City An explosive charge against a synagogue entrance caused considerable damage, although no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 22 July 1981, Athens The PFLP claimed responsibility for the killing of Dhimitris Malandasi who they claimed was an Israeli intelligence agent. They also claimed responsibility for the bomb attack which killed Evyenia Anjelikousi, the owner of a Greek travel agency where Malandasi worked, when a bomb exploded in the agency. 29 July 1981, Vienna Police deported two Arabs believed to be members of the Abu Nidal Organisation and the PLO representative to Greece in connection with a plot to assassinate the Jewish Chancellor of Austria, Bruno Kreisky. The two Abu Nidal members had been arrested at Schwechat Airport where their luggage was found to contain a large amount of arms and ammunition. 9 August 1981, Rome The Arab Organisation of 15 May claimed responsibility for a bomb outside the El Al office at Leonardo da Vinci Airport, Rome. 10 August 1981, Athens The Arab Organisation of 15 May claimed responsibility for two bombs outside the Israel Embassy in Athens. There were no injuries. 29 August 1981, Vienna Members of the Abu Nidal Organisation machine-gunned the Seitunsstettengasse synagogue, killing two and wounding seventeen others. They had previously attempted to attack another synagogue nearby but had been thwarted by security guards. 23 September 1981, Limassol Members of the Abu Nidal Organisation were responsible for a hand grenade attack on the Limassol, Cyprus offices of the Zim Israel shipping company injuring five employees. 26 September 1981, Vienna A bomb exploded outside the home of a prominent member of the Jewish community causing damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 7 October 1981, Rome A bomb exploded outside the El Al office injuring one person and causing minor damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 7 October 1981, Ostia A bomb exploded outside the centre for Soviet Jewish emigr?s in Ostia, Italy injuring four people. No claim for responsibility was made. 20 October 1981, Antwerp A car bomb exploded outside the Antwerp Diamond Club opposite the Hoveniersstraat Synagogue killing three and injuring one person. Responsibility was claimed by the PLO Black September organisation, although a local television station also claimed that the Belgian cell of Action Directe had also claimed responsibility. 2 December 1981, Caracas An emissary of the Jewish Agency was shot and wounded near his home in Caracas following publication of his articles in the Venezuelan press about attacks on Israel. No claim for responsibility was made. 20 December 1981, Mediterranean A bomb exploded on the Israel-bound Orion shortly before it entered Haifa port killing two and wounding two others. The Abu Ibrahim group claimed responsibility. 6 January 1982, Guebwiller Approximately thirty shots were fired at the synagogue in Guebwiller, France causing damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 9 January 1982, Istanbul A bomb exploded outside the El Al ticket office at Istanbul airport, also damaging the neighbouring Lufthansa office, there were no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 12 January 1982, Guatemala Bombs were thrown from a car at the embassies of Israel and Argentina and the consulate of Haiti, causing minor damage. A subsequent telephone call to the press claimed the attack was to protest against Israel’s supply of arms to the Guatemalan army. 15 January 1982, Berlin The Arab Organisation of 15 May and the People’s League for Free Palestine both claimed responsibility for bombing the Mifgash-Israel Jewish restaurant in Berlin, in which one child was killed and forty-six adults injured. 4 February 1982, Vienna A bomb exploded at the home of the Austrian Chief Rabbi Akiva Eisenberg, causing minor damage and no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 February 1982, Rome A hand grenade was thrown at the entrance of the Great synagogue causing damage but no injuries. Responsibility was claimed by the Red Brigades in a letter received shortly before the attack. 28 March 1982, Rome The office of El Al was bombed causing little damage and no injuries. The PLO was believed to have been responsible. 28-29 March 1982, Rome Bombs went off outside two stores owned by members of the Jewish community causing serious damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made but the Israel government subsequently informed the Italian government that the PLO was responsible. 31 March 1982, Paris The Israel consulate was attacked by three gunmen causing no injuries. The Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction (LARF) claimed responsibility. The police investigation subsequently established that they had been aided by members of the leftist Action Directe. 3 April 1982, France The Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction (LARF) carried out a machine-gun attack on the Israel Embassy in Paris injuring Yaacov Barsimantov an Israeli diplomat. Georges Ibrahim Abdallah, a Lebanese, was convicted and sentenced for the attack in July 1986. 27 April 1982, Mexico City Police defused a bomb found in the Tarbut Jewish school. Claim for responsibility was made by the Palestinian Party in Mexico. 3 June 1982, London Marwen al-Banna, Hussain Ahmed Ghassan Said and Nayaf Rosan, all members of the Abu Nidal Organisation, attempted to assassinate Shlomo Argov, the Israel Ambassador, as he left a Park Lane hotel. The three were convicted and sentenced to between thirty and thirty-five years imprisonment each. The subsequent police investigation found that they had also been collecting information on Israelis and Jewish institutions in London. 8 June 1982, Zurich The Revolutionary Cells claimed responsibility for bombs at the Israel and US consulates which caused damage but no injuries. 11 June 1982, Vienna The home of Simon Weisenthal, head of the Jewish Documentation Centre was bombed causing severe damage but no injuries. Austrian neo-Nazis were believed to have been responsible for the attack. 13 June 1982, Paris Two bombs exploded outside Israeli-owned cafes causing little damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 14 June 1982, Turku A Molotov cocktail was thrown at the Jewish community centre in Turku, Finland causing little damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 June 1982, Rome A bomb in the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) office in Rome caused little damage and no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 19 June 1982, Rome Bombs caused minor damage but no injuries at the offices of the Italian Israel Chamber of Commerce, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) and the local American Express office. No claim for responsibility was made. 24 June 1982, Rome A bomb in a Jewish-owned travel agency caused slight damage and no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 1 July 1982, Athens A bomb was dismantled by police and bomb disposal officers outside a Jewish-owned travel agency. No claim for responsibility was made. 7 July 1982, Paris A bomb at the Israel Discount Bank in Paris caused little damage and no casualties. Action Directe claimed responsibility. 20 July 1982, Paris Two bombs outside the Israel-owned Bank Leumi in Paris caused extensive damage but no casualties. Leaflets were found nearby which stated ‘the PLO will win’, but no claim for responsibility was made. 20 July 1982, Paris Bombs exploded outside an Israel bank and the Paris office of a company that imported Israeli electronic components causing little damage. Leaflets with the slogan ‘Palestine will live’ were found nearby. No claim for responsibility was made. 24 July 1982, Sanary A bomb outside the home of a prominent member of the Sanary community near Toulouse, France, destroyed the building. No claim for responsibility was made but a sign stating ‘death to the Jews’ was found nearby. 28 July 1982, Salzburg A bomb outside a Jewish-owned store in Salzburg, Austria, caused considerable damage to property. Although no claim for responsibility was made anonymous leaflets calling for the boycott of Jewish-owned businesses were found in the area. 31 July 1982, Vienna A bomb outside a Jewish-owned store caused considerable damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 31 July 1982, Munich Bomb exploded inside a suitcase at the El Al terminal in Riem Airport injuring five people. No claim for responsibility was made. 2 August 1982, Vienna A bomb outside a Jewish-owned bank caused considerable damage but no injuries. Graffiti criticising Israel’s invasion of Lebanon was found on a nearby wall. 2 August 1982, Rome An explosion at the entrance to a block of flats occupied by prominent Jewish families caused some damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 6 August 1982, Vienna A bomb placed outside a Jewish kindergarten in Vienna failed to explode. No claim for responsibility was made. 8 August 1982, Cork Molotov cocktails were thrown at the synagogue in Cork, Ireland causing damage to the building but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 8 August 1982, Paris An explosion outside a Jewish-owned store caused damage to the store and nearby homes. No claim for responsibility was made. 9 August 1982, Paris Members of the Abu Nidal Organisation killed six and wounded twenty-two others in a grenade and machine-gun attack on Jo Goldenburg’s Jewish restaurant. 10 August 1982, Paris Members of the French leftist group Action Directe machine-gunned an empty Israel Embassy car in Paris, and bombed a Jewish-owned shop and bank. One person was injured. 10 August 1982, Paris A bomb in the building which housed the offices of the (Israel) Citrus Marketing Board and a Jewish-owned bank caused extensive damage. Action Directe claimed responsibility. 11 August 1982, Guatemala A bomb attack on the Israel embassy, which caused no damage or injury, was followed shortly thereafter by a similar attack on a nearby synagogue. No claim for responsibility was made. 11 August 1982, Guadalahara A bomb left outside the Jewish community centre in Guadalahara, Mexico failed to go off. No claim for responsibility was made. 14 August 1982, Paris A firebomb attack on a building owned by the Jews for Jesus-like Bet Rosh Pinah sect caused serious damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made but swastikas were found on leaflets nearby. 20 August 1982, Vienna Bombs were found on the premises of a banned neo-Nazi organisation following a police raid. It is believed that the bomb was intended to be used against a local Jewish institution. 1 September 1982, Geneva Adnan Awad, a member of the Abu Ibrahim Group was sent to Geneva to bomb the Jewish-owned Noga Hilton Hotel. Unable to go through with his mission he aborted it and turned himself over to the US embassy in Bern.. 17 September 1982, Paris A bomb hidden in a motorbike exploded next to the car of Amos Manel, an Israel embassy official injuring eight people including Manel and members of his family. The subsequent police investigation established that it had been carried out by members of Action Directe with the assistance of the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction. 17 September 1982, Buenos Aires A bomb outside a synagogue in Buenos Aires was dismantled. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 September 1982, Paris Shots were fired at a store belonging to a member of the Jewish community in the 15th arrondisement. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 September 1982, Brussels Five people were wounded when a gunman fired a machine-gun at the rue de la Regence synagogue. The Black Lebanon Organisation subsequently claimed responsibility. 19 September 1982, Edinburgh A Molotov cocktail was thrown at the synagogue causing damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 22 September 1982, Quito A bomb was placed outside the Jewish community centre in Quito, Ecuador, causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 23 September 1982, Colombia The wife of the Israel Ambassador and two others were seriously injured when gunmen machine-gunned the Ambassador’s residence. The April 19 Movement subsequently claimed responsibility. 23 September 1982, Malta The Israel Charg? d’Affaires in Malta was almost kidnapped by four men as she tried to enter her car. The attempt failed although she was lightly injured. The attack was attributed to the Abu Nidal Organisation. 27 September 1982, Frankfurt Three bombs exploded near Frankfurt railway station: one outside a travel agency that organises visits to Israel, killing a caretaker and wounding a passer-by; the other two bombs were outside offices of companies that maintain contacts with Israel. The explosions occurred on Yom Kippur. No claim for responsibility was made. 30 September 1982, Milan An explosion outside the offices of the Milan Jewish community caused damage to the property but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 30 September 1982, Milan A bomb exploded at the Jewish community centre causing little damage and no injuries. The Communist Armed Group subsequently claimed responsibility. 8 October 1982, New York City A bomb exploded outside the offices of the Jewish Defence League causing damage but no casualties. A claim for responsibility was made on behalf of Palestinians. 9 October 1982, Rome The main Rome synagogue was attacked by an unknown number of terrorists belonging to the Abu Nidal Organisation. One child was killed and thirty-seven adults were injured. A member of the group, all of whom escaped, Abdel Osama al Zomor, was arrested one month later trying to smuggle 132 lb of explosives into Greece by car. It was assumed that his target was again a Jewish institution, but he was freed by the Greek government before either the Italian or American governments, who had both requested his extradition, could interrogate him. 14 October 1982, Cleveland A Molotov cocktail was thrown into a Jewish school in Cleveland, Ohio causing considerable damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 17 October 1982, Cochabamba A Molotov cocktail was thrown against a Jewish community building in Cochabamba, Bolivia causing slight damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 20 October 1982, Cochabamba A Molotov cocktail was thrown at the synagogue causing slight damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 October 1982, Rome A bomb attack on the Nomentana synagogue and Jewish community centre caused slight damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 25 November 1982, Cochabamba An incendiary bomb was thrown at the house of the President of the Jewish community in Cochabamba, Bolivia causing little damage. There was no claim for responsibility. December 1982, Lima A bomb exploded outside a synagogue in Lima, Peru causing little damage and no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 3 December 1982, Lima An explosive charge was thrown at the entrance of the main synagogue in Lima, Peru, causing little damage and no injuries. A government spokesman claimed that local Palestinian terrorists were responsible. 3 December 1982, Quito A bomb concealed in a suitcase exploded in the building that housed the Israel embassy in Quito, Ecuador. Two policemen were killed and one other person was injured. A local organisation claimed responsibility. 4 December 1982, Lima An explosive charge went off outside a Jewish-owned department store in Lima, Peru causing extensive damage. No claim of responsibility was made. 7 December 1982, Berlin Raids on the homes of neo-Nazi group members led to the discovery of arms and ammunition. The police reported that the group were responsible for death threats against Heinz Galinski, the President of the Berlin Jewish community. 10 December 1982, Lima A police bomb disposal unit disarmed a large bomb placed outside the entrance to the main synagogue. No claim for responsibility was made. 23 December 1982, Sydney Bombs exploded in the Israel consulate building and a Jewish club in Sydney, Australia. Two people were wounded in the attack. The Abu Ibrahim Faction claimed responsibility. 23 December 1982, Sydney Two car bombs exploded outside the Hakoach Club in Sydney causing extensive damage but no casualties. A few hours earlier a bomb exploded within the Israel consulate. The Free Lebanon of Foreigners Organisation claimed responsibility. 30 December 1982, Melbourne An explosive charge went off inside a Jewish-owned clothes shop in Melbourne causing extensive damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was claimed. 26 February 1983, Marseille A bomb was discovered in a community hall shortly before a Purim party organised by the Jewish National Fund was to take place. A telephone claim for responsibility was made by previously unknown Copernic Two group. 8 March 1983, Marseille A bomb attack against a local synagogue was foiled when the two unidentified men, who had apparently intended to leave the bomb in front of the synagogue were killed when it went off prematurely in their car. No claim for responsibility was made. 22 March 1983, Guatemala A bomb exploded outside the Guatemala City synagogue causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 March 1983, Vienna An assassination plot by the Abu Nidal Organisation against Jewish Chancellor Bruno Kreisky was foiled by the local security services. It is believed that the Abu Nidal Organisation was responsible. 2 May 1983, Mexico City Shots were fired at the home of an Israeli diplomat causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 4 June 1983, Quito A bomb exploded outside a Jewish-owned shop in Quito, Ecuador, causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 7 June 1983, New York City Shots were fired at Yeshiva University causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 9 June 1983, New York City Shots were fired at a Jewish hospital causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 17 June 1983, Barranquilla A bomb was thrown at the synagogue in Barranquilla, Columbia, causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 22 June 1983, New York City Shots were fired at a restaurant near Yeshiva University injuring three students. No claim for responsibility was made. 4 July 1983, New York Two Molotov cocktails were thrown at Brooklyn Yeshiva causing damage but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 31 August 1983, London A small parcel-bomb was left by the door of the central London branch of the Israeli Bank Leumi, causing minor damage. Responsibility was claimed by the Abu Nidal Organisation. 18 September 1983, New York A car carrying Yeshiva University students was fired on injuring one passenger and killing a passer-by. No claim for responsibility was made. 17 October 1983, Santiago A bomb went off outside the house of a prominent Jewish television personality in Santiago, Chile causing damage but no injuries. Antisemitic leaflets were found near the house, but no organisation claimed responsibility. December 1983, Rome The Arab Organisation of 15 May attempted to blow up three airliners in flight at Rome airport. Bombs were discovered aboard two Israel-bound flights and a suitcase bomb was detonated prior to being loaded onboard a flight to New York. 23 December 1983, Malta The Israel Charg? d’Affairs, Esther Millo, narrowly escaped assassination when a lone gunman shot at her car. No claim for responsibility was made. 25 December 1983, London A bomb planted in a rubbish bin in Orchard Street, which is located midway between Marks & Spencer and Selfridges, injured two and caused damage to nearby buildings. Habib Maamar, a Tunisian arrested in Paris in May 1986, confessed to the bombing which he claimed was planned by the Abu Ibrahim Group. 5 June 1984, Cairo The security officer of the Israel Embassy in Cairo, Egypt was wounded in the hand by a shot fired from a moving vehicle. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 June 1984, Denver Jewish talk-show host Alan Berg was murdered by members of the white supremacist terrorist group, The Order, when they machine-gunned him outside his home. 4 October 1984, Nicosia A car bomb exploded in the car park of the Israel embassy. The Abu Musa Faction claimed responsibility for the attack. 31 October 1984, Brooklyn An explosion in a Brooklyn synagogue practically destroyed the building although no casualties were suffered. No claim for responsibility was made. 1985, Stockholm Four Palestinians, two of whom were also Swedish citizens and who were long-term residents in Sweden, conspired to bomb the main Stockholm synagogue, as well as the local offices of El Al. One person died and twenty-seven were injured in the attacks. Two of the attackers subsequently escaped from the maximum-security jail where they were imprisoned. 23 February 1985, Paris A bomb killed one man and injured eighteen others at a Paris branch of the Marks & Spencer store. Three Arabs, members of the Arab Organisation of May 15 Organisation, were subsequently arrested and tried for the attack as well as a previous bombing of Bank Leumi. 29 March 1985, Paris A bomb exploded at a cinema showing a film about Adolf Eichmann as part of a Jewish film festival. Twenty members of the audience were injured, some seriously. Responsibility was claimed by the Abu Nidal Organisation, Islamic Jihad and neo-Nazi groups. 10 June 1985, Barranco A bomb was dismantled by police in the Jewish school in Barranco, Peru. No claim for responsibility was made although the police believe that the Shining Path Organisation (Sendero Luminoso) were responsible. 2 July 1985, San Francisco A bomb was dismantled by the police in the Adath Israel synagogue in San Francisco. No claim for responsibility was made. 22 July 1985, Copenhagen Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the bombing of the Great Synagogue and a Jewish old-age home in Copenhagen. Twenty-seven people were injured. 20 August 1985, Cairo An Israeli diplomat was shot dead in Cairo, Egypt. Responsibility was claimed by the Egyptian Revolution Group. 21 August 1985, Paris The Paris branch of Bank Leumi was bombed causing extensive damage but no injuries. Police investigation established subsequently that the Abu Ibrahim faction of the PLO was responsible. 25 August 1985, Milan Two bombs went off in the centre of Milan: one near the Moritzio Levi Jewish Club; the other near the El Al offices. A number of passers-by were injured and extensive damage was caused both to the building and cars in the vicinity. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 August 1985, Santiago Two bombs exploded in Jewish-owned shops in the centre of Santiago, Chile. The first caused little damage, the second injured seven people. No claim for responsibility was made. 15 September 1985, Copenhagen Twelve people were injured when two bombs exploded in Copenhagen; one at a factory producing kosher food, the other at a travel agency specialising in Israel tours. The explosions occurred the day before Rosh Hashanah. No claim for responsibility was made. 16 September 1985, San Francisco A bomb was found outside the home of the rabbi of the Adath Israel synagogue in San Francisco. No claim for responsibility was made. 24 September 1985, Brussels A car bomb was discovered and dismantled outside the Central synagogue during the evening of Yom Kippur. No claim for responsibility was made. 25 September 1985, Larnaca A PLO Force 17 terrorist squad killed three Israeli tourists aboard a yacht in Larnaca marina, Cyprus. The three-strong group, including Briton Ian Davidson, were convicted and imprisoned by the Cypriot authorities. September 1985, Amsterdam The El Al office was bombed causing no casualties. The PFLP-GC subsequently claimed responsibility. October 1985, London Rasmi Abdel Awad and Nasser Karim Mohammed, both members of the Abu Nidal Organisation, were convicted of establishing a terrorist cell in Britain. Although their primary targets were other Palestinians connected to the PLO, they were found to have been collecting operational information on Jewish community targets in north west London. Awad was sentenced to twenty-five years; Mohammed was deported. 1 October 1985, Buenos Aires A bomb exploded outside the Shalom Aleichem Jewish kindergarten in Buenos Aires causing extensive damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 5-6 October 1985, Barcelona Unknown gunmen in Barcelona assassinated two Israeli seamen. Fatah Force 17 later claimed responsibility. 7 October 1985, Mediterranean, off Egyptian Coast The Abu Abbas faction of the Palestine Liberation Front hijacked the Italian-owned cruise ship Achille Lauro. After holding the passengers and crew hostage for two days, an American Jewish passenger, Leon Klinghoffer, was murdered. 8 October 1985, Djerba A policeman who was supposed to be guarding the Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia, opened fire on members of the congregation killing four and wounding thirteen. 15 October 1985, Rome Two Palestinians believed to be members of the May 15 Organisation were arrested in Rome, carrying suitcase bombs. They subsequently admitted planning to attack Israeli and American targets. 27 December 1985, Rome, Vienna Four members of the Abu Nidal Organisation attacked an El Al counter at Rome Airport, killing sixteen and injuring sixty-seven people. A similar simultaneous attack at Vienna Airport resulted in two deaths and forty-seven injuries. 19 March 1986, Cairo An Israeli diplomat was killed and three others wounded when their car was attacked as they left an international fair in which Israel was participating. Responsibility was later claimed by the Egyptian Revolution believed to be part of the Abu Nidal Organisation. 17 April 1986, London Nezar Hindawi, a lone Palestinian acting with Syrian Embassy assistance, attempted to blow up an El Al plane at Heathrow Airport by duping his Irish girlfriend into carrying a bomb hidden within a radio. He was subsequently sentenced to forty-five years imprisonment. 18 May 1986, Santiago An explosive charge was found under the car of the (Jewish) director of the economics faculty of Santiago University who had been active in denouncing neo-Nazi activity on the campus. The explosive charge was dismantled by the police. No claim for responsibility was made. 26 June 1986, Madrid A premature explosion foiled an attempt to blow up an El Al plane in Madrid, although thirteen people were severely injured. The bomb, which was hidden in a suitcase, was the property of Halaff Isian Manve. His arrest and interrogation led the police to Ali Hassan Nasser, who claimed membership of Fatah’s Abu Musa faction. 6 September 1986, Istanbul Two members of the Abu Nidal Organisation attacked the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul with grenades and machine guns, killing twenty-two members of the congregation and injuring four others during Shabbat morning prayers. The attackers were both subsequently killed after detonating belts containing explosives. 17 September 1986, Paris A wave of bombings against Jewish communal and private targets in Paris killed thirteen and injured over two hundred and fifty people. Responsibility for the attacks was attributed to the Lebanese Shiite group led by the two Hamadei brothers, who were subsequently arrested in Frankfurt on 13 January and 26 January respectively. A Tunisian-born Frenchman, Fouad Ali Saleh, was also subsequently sentenced to twenty years, for his part in the attacks. The group to which they belonged was later stated to have close contacts with, and was under the operational control of Hizbollah. 2 October 1986, London Six members of the Abu Nidal Organisation, including a Swedish national, were arrested and charged with plotting to assassinate the Israel Ambassador. The members of the group were all deported. 11 November 1986, Antwerp An explosion occurred outside Antwerp’s main synagogue, causing moderate damage but no fatalities. A group called “The Call of Jesus Christ” claimed responsibility. 30 December 1986, Paris French police foiled a plot by three men to bomb the synagogue in Rue Copernicus. The men, two Portuguese and an Egyptian, were in possession of forged Spanish passports and claimed to be acting on behalf of the Revolution of Christians Against the Jewish Enemy. The men were subsequently convicted and imprisoned. 18 March 1987, Athens A bomb was thrown at the Israel embassy, causing damage but no injuries. No claim for responsibility was made. 24 December 1987, Cordoba A bomb exploded by the entrance gate of the Jewish cemetery in Cordoba, Argentina, causing extensive damage to buildings. No claim for responsibility was made. 29 December 1987, Istanbul Eleven letterbombs were sent from Istanbul, Turkey to addresses in Israel, injuring one person who opened his letter. The other letterbombs were intercepted and dismantled. No claim for responsibility was made. 3 January 1988, Panama City Shots were fired at the Panama City synagogue. There were no casualties and no claim for responsibility was made. 8 January 1988, Los Angeles Molotov cocktails were thrown at the Beit Hatikva synagogue in Los Angeles. The resultant fire was extinguished before extensive damage could be caused. No claim for responsibility was made. 27 January 1988, Bogota The Ashkenazi synagogue in Bogota, Colombia was the target of an armed attack by members of the M-19 terrorist group. There were no injuries but extensive damage was caused. 16 February 1988, Manila A bomb exploded outside the Philippine Savings Bank building which housed the Israel Embassy, breaking windows but causing no injuries. An unexploded hand grenade was also found outside the building. No claim for responsibility was made. 21 March 1988, Tokyo The Israel embassy was bombed. There were no casualties, and no claim for responsibility was made. 11 April 1988, Medellin A bomb was thrown at the El Poblado synagogue, Medellin, Colombia by two men riding a motorbike. The attack was subsequently claimed by the National Liberation Army (ELN) Ernesto Che Guevara Nucleus in Solidarity with the Palestinian People. 18 April 1988, Frankfurt A bomb was thrown from a moving car at the Jewish Community Centre in Frankfurt. The attack took place shortly after a similar one against the offices of Saudi Airlines. No claim for responsibility was made. 26 April 1988, Italy Italian authorities stopped the sale of grapefruit, ninety percent of which were imported from Israel at that time, after samples were found to have been poisoned with a powerful substance which would have killed instantly if ingested. No claim for responsibility was ever made. 11 May 1988, Nicosia A premature explosion foiled an attempt to blow up the Israel embassy in Nicosia by the Abu Nidal Organisation. The driver of the car was killed in the explosion; a second accomplice, a Lebanese citizen, was caught; a third escaped. In all four people were killed and thirty-two injured in the explosion. 2 June 1988, Limasol Cypriot police announced they were looking for two Arabs and their car, which allegedly contained large quantities of explosives and detonators. They had been refused embarkation on a Haifa-bound ship at Limasol and it is believed they intended to carry out terrorist attacks on arrival. It is not known which organisation they were affiliated to but Cypriot police subsequently announced that Hizbollah was planning attacks on the island. 11 July 1988, Greece A terrorist attack on The City of Poros, a Greek ferryboat carrying 471 passengers in the Aegean sea, resulted in 11 deaths and 98 injuries. It was subsequently revealed that Israeli counter-terrorist agents were onboard the ship and had engaged in a gun battle with the terrorists in an attempt to protect the passengers. Israeli authorities had previously warned the Greek authorities of a planned terrorist attack on a Greek ship which had been ignored by the Greek government. Subsequent investigation showed the Abu Nidal Organisation, possibly working with other groups, were responsible. 16 July 1988, Lima Three members of the Abu Nidal Organisation in Lima, Peru, including two locally recruited Arabs, were charged with gathering information on synagogues, and cars owned by Jewish community leaders and Israeli diplomats, with a view to carrying out terrorist attacks. 21 October 1988, Frankfurt and Hamburg Of a total of thirteen Palestinians arrested, four were subsequently charged with terrorist offences after the discovery of arms caches in Frankfurt and Hamburg. The Palestinians were all connected to the PFLP-GC and were planning an attack against a visiting Israeli football team. 28 October 1988, Munster Incendiary bombs were thrown at the synagogue in Munster, Germany. No claim for responsibility was made. 13 November 1988, La Paz A bomb went off in Israel Square, La Paz, Bolivia. There were no injuries. The Commando for a Free Palestine claimed responsibility. 7 December 1988, Copenhagen Extensive damage was caused to a travel agency owned by an El Al subsidiary in Copenhagen. Danish pro-Palestinian left-wingers claimed responsibility under the name “Anti-Zionist Autonomy”. 14 December 1988, Lisbon A parcel bomb was delivered to the Israel embassy but was defused by the Portuguese police. No organisation claimed responsibility although the sender’s name on the parcel was “Carlos Pentantos”. 16 January 1989, London A powerful letter bomb was sent to the Israel Embassy in London, but rendered harmless after its discovery. Responsibility was claimed by the January 15 Organisation, which was believed to be affiliated to Palestinian Islamic Jihad. 23 August 1989, Istanbul A bomb was detonated near the Israel consulate in Istanbul, causing no damage or injuries. The Armed People’s Units, believed to be associated with the Marxist Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) claimed responsibility. 3 October 1989, Brussels Dr Joseph Wybran, the President of the Belgian Jewish community, was assassinated by a gunman in the car park of the hospital in Brussels where he worked as a consultant. It was later alleged that he was murdered by members of the Abu Nidal Organisation at Iranian government behest. October 1989, Manaos Moise Salim Taia, Vice President of the Manaos Argentinean Jewish community was shot and seriously wounded. His attackers, who were never caught, were believed to have been connected to the Arab community. 3 November 1989, Copenhagen Danish police charged eight Danish citizens, all members of the left wing Appel or Toffah (Arabic for “Apple”) group with gathering information on members of the Jewish community with the aim of perpetrating acts of terror. At their trial, at which they were convicted, it was stated that the information was to have been passed to the PFLP with whom they were politically linked. 25 November 1989, Madrid and Valencia Spanish police arrested eight Arab terrorists following the discovery of a massive arsenal of explosives hidden in a Lebanese registered freighter which docked at Valencia harbour. The eight, who had a variety of passports, were subsequently identified as Hizbollah members and it is believed that they were planning to mount attacks throughout Europe against Jewish targets. 17 January 1990, Sydney A petrol bomb was thrown at the Shalom Jewish college in Sydney. No claim for responsibility was made. 4 February 1990, near Cairo Ten Israeli tourists were killed and nineteen others injured in an attack on an Israeli tourist bus on the Ismailia-Cairo road in Egypt. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility and stated it was part of a struggle “between us and the Jews that will continue until victory and the crushing of those who dream of a peaceful solution”. 22 March 1990, Melbourne Petrol bombs were thrown at the Kew Jewish Centre in Melbourne. No claim for responsibility was made. 11 April 1990, Melbourne Again petrol bombs were thrown at Kew synagogue, Melbourne. No claim for responsibility was made. 15 May 1990, Santiago An explosive device was detonated outside the Ashkenazi synagogue in Santiago, Chile causing slight damage. There were no casualties. Responsibility was claimed by the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front. 21 May 1990, Istanbul A bomb went off in the El Al offices in Istanbul, Turkey. There were no injuries and no claim for responsibility was made. July 1990, Johannesburg A bomb exploded outside a synagogue in Johannesburg. Antisemitic slogans were painted at the entrance. No claim for responsibility was made. A bomb also exploded on the same day outside the home of a Jewish member of Johannesburg City Council who had previously received anonymous death threats. 24 July 1990, Peru Yaakov Hazon, the secretary of the Jewish community in Lima, Peru, was seriously wounded when he was shot at by three men and a woman who fired at him from a passing car. The attackers were alleged by the authorities to have been members of the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) terrorist organisation. 2 July 1990, Johannesburg Ten members of a neo-Nazi group were arrested and charged with planting a bomb outside a synagogue in Johannesburg, which they had previously daubed with swastikas. Structural damage was caused to the adjacent Jewish kindergarten. 13 October 1990, Padua A bomb exploded outside the Padua, Italy offices of Cabassie Gioretti, which imports Israeli cosmetics. No damage was caused. A claim for responsibility was made by an unknown group but stated it sympathised with Palestinians. 21-22 October 1990, Miami Shots were fired at a Jewish restaurant. No claim for responsibility was made. 2 November 1990, Lima A bomb exploded at the Lima synagogue causing damage but no injuries. Responsibility was claimed by the Tupac Amaru terrorist organisation. 2 November 1990, Montevideo A bomb was discovered and dismantled in the Sephardi community centre in Montevideo, Uruguay. No claim for responsibility was made. 5 November 1990, New York Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the Jewish Defence League, was assassinated by El Sayyid A Nosair, a naturalised American of Egyptian origin. Nosair was acquitted of a murder charge, due to a faulty police investigation, but convicted of assault and illegal possession of a firearm. 15 November 1990, San Francisco Shots were fired at the Beth Israel synagogue. No claim for responsibility was made. 19 November 1990, San Francisco A petrol bomb was thrown at a community building. No claim for responsibility was made. 19 November 1990, Miami Shots were fired at Jewish restaurants. No claim for responsibility was made. 26 November 1990, San Leandro and Oakland Petrol bombs were thrown at synagogues in both San Leandro and Oakland, California. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 December 1990, Lima A bomb exploded under the car of a member of the Jewish community parked near the Sephardi synagogue in Lima, Peru. The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) organisation claimed responsibility. 17 January 1991, Lyons Shots were fired at a synagogue in Lyons, Paris during the early hours of the morning. The synagogue had previously been attacked both with firearms and a molotov cocktail 30 January 1991, Porto Alegre A bomb was thrown at the synagogue in Porto Alegre, Argentina causing slight damage. No claim for responsibility was made. 5 February 1991, Medellin A Jewish owned factory, and a Mormon church, were bombed in Medellin, Colombia. The previously unknown Heroes of Palestine claimed responsibility and stated in a press release that the attack was in response to the American aggression against the Palestinian people and Arabs in general. There were no casualties. 3 March 1991, Manilla A bomb went off outside a synagogue in Manilla without causing damage. It was later suggested that the bombers were Iraqi or pro-Iraqi agents seeking revenge for the Gulf War. 8 June 1991, Cordoba A bomb exploded at an Israeli bank branch in Cordoba, Argentina. There were no injuries and no claim for responsibility was made. 30 September 1991, Amsterdam Dutch police arrested and later charged six Arabs with planning a terrorist attack against the Spanish and Portuguese synagogue in Amsterdam, over Yom Kippur. All had been living in Holland for some time, but were believed to be connected with the Lebanese Amal group. 15 November 1991, Kiev Army experts defused two explosive devices found in the toilets of the main Kiev, Ukraine synagogue. An Israeli ex-minister was to have addressed a communal meeting later in the day. 23 December 1991, Budapest Four Soviet Jews and two policemen were injured when a remote controlled bomb exploded as a bus they were travelling in with other Israel-bound Soviet Jewish emigr?s passed by on the way to Budapest airport. A police spokesman blamed Arab terrorists. 1 March 1992, Istanbul Two hand grenades were thrown into the entrance of the Neve Shalom Synagogue in Istanbul during the course of a wedding injuring a man nearby. Members of Turkish Hizbollah were later tried and convicted of the attack. 7 March 1992, Ankara The head of security at the Israel embassy, Ehud Sadan was killed and three others were injured in a car bomb attack. This was followed by a second attack on a local synagogue. Islamic Jihad and Islamic Revenge Organisation claimed responsibility. 17 March 1992, Buenos Aires A car bomb exploded at the Israel embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing twenty-nine and injuring two hundred and fifty-two people. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility but subsequent investigations laid the blame on the Iranian government using local Arabs. 29 March 1992, Buenos Aires Police deactivated a bomb left outside the Argentine Hebrew Association in Buenos Aires. No claim for responsibility was made. April 1992, Bucharest The police, who subsequently identified a man using an Iraqi passport as having rented the car, defused a car bomb parked outside the Jewish community building in Bucharest, Romania. The operation is regarded as having been carried out by Hizbollah. 27 December 1992, Buenos Aires Gunshots were fired at a school bus taking children from a Jewish community school back to Buenos Aires from a vacation in nearby Cosquin. There were no fatalities. No claim for responsibility was made. 28 January 1993, Turkey Police bodyguards foiled an attempt to ambush and machine gun the motorcade of Jewish community leader Jacques Kimhi. The two terrorists subsequently tried and convicted of the attack claimed to have been members of the Persevering Workers of Islam, an Iranian-linked group. 1 April 1993, Washington DC Four members of the Abu Nidal Organisation, all long-term residents in the USA, were convicted of planning a terrorist campaign against the Israel Embassy and leading members of the Jewish community in Washington DC. 1 March 1994, New York Rashad Baz, a naturalised American of Lebanese Druze origin, fired on a minibus containing Lubavitch yeshivah students near the Brooklyn Bridge. One was killed and three others were injured. He was later charged and convicted of murder, attempted murder and illegal possession of weapons. 11 March 1994, Bangkok A hijacked truck laden with explosives collided with a motorcycle leading to the abandonment of a planned attack against the Israel Embassy. Although no claim for responsibility was made it is now believed that a group of Islamist terrorists led by Ramzi Yousef were responsible. 24 March 1994, Lubeck Neo-Nazis firebombed the Lubeck synagogue in Germany during the night. Two Molotov cocktails were thrown into the building, severely damaging it. 9 July 1994, Panama A small passenger plane exploded in mid-air while en-route from Colon to Panama City. There were no survivors among the eighteen passengers and three crew. Twelve of the passengers were Jewish and it is believed that the motivation for the attack was antisemitism. The Partisans of God (Ansar al Allah), a Hizbollah-linked group, claimed responsibility. 18 July 1994, Buenos Aires A car bomb outside the six-storey AMIA Jewish community building in Buenos Aires caused the building to collapse, killing eighty-five and injuring two hundred others. Subsequent investigations showed the instigators to have been the Iranian government using Hizbollah operatives, together with local neo-Nazi sympathisers within the police. 26 July 1994, London A car bomb exploded outside the Israel Embassy in Kensington causing severe structural damage. A policeman and embassy security guard were both slightly injured. Slight injuries were also caused to some members of the embassy staff and a nearby workman. Two Palestinians, loosely connected to the PFLP, were subsequently convicted of conspiring to carry out the attack and the Finchley bombing, the following evening. 27 July 1994, London A second car bomb exploded outside the Balfour House, Finchley offices of the Joint Israel Appeal and Zionist Federation, causing blast damage to the front of the building and the buildings opposite. 30 July 1994, Panama City Gunshots were fired at the Hebrew Cultural Center in Panama City from two passing cars. One person was injured. No claims for responsibility were made. 13 September 1994, Germany German authorities arrested six Palestinians with Jordanian passports and one Egyptian in connection with a plot to assassinate Ignatz Bubis, the President of the German Jewish community, bomb a Jewish centre in Cologne, a synagogue in Berlin and the Israel embassy in Bonn. Although they were later released for lack of evidence they were stated to be members of the Abu Nidal Organisation. 20 December 1994, Sweden The Swedish government expelled Ali Biljani, the Iranian-born head of the local Shiite community in Malmo, under legislation which allows for the expulsion of suspected terrorists. Two subsequent expulsions of members of the Iranian community is now known to have been due, in part, to their collecting information on the Jewish community and its schools with a view to mounting terrorist attacks. 25 December 1994, Lyons A propane gas car bomb parked outside a synagogue in Lyons, France was defused, narrowly avoiding massive casualties. 7 September 1995, Lyons A car bomb exploded outside a Jewish school in Lyons injuring fourteen people. Larger scale casualties were avoided as a result of the children leaving the school late. It was later established that members of the Algerian Armed Islamic Group (GIA) were responsible for this and the December 1994 failed attack. March 1996, Manchester Three Islamist post-graduate students were put on trial for planning terrorist attacks in the Manchester area. Although no targets were identified they had in their possession a photograph of the then Israel Ambassador, against whom it was alleged that they were planning an assassination attempt. The students were not affiliated to any terrorist group. Two were acquitted; the third was convicted of possession of illegal explosives and imprisoned. 14 March 1996, Antwerp Belgian police found explosives and mortars destined for Munich on the Iran Kollahdooz, an Iranian freighter. The police arrested the Iranian owner of an import export firm in connection with the seizure, and questioned two Iranian Ministry of Intelligence employees who were on the freighter, which subsequently continued its journey to Hamburg. The arms were destined for Munich, and it is believed that they were to be used in an attack on Israeli and or Jewish targets. April 1996, Yaroslav A bomb exploded at the Jewish Cultural Centre in Yaroslav, Russia. There were no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. 18 April 1996, Cairo Members of the Egyptian Islamic Group (Jama’ah al-Islamiyah) killed eighteen Greek tourists, and wounded twenty-one others, of whom twelve were Greek, in an assault on the Europa Hotel in Cairo, in the mistaken belief that they were Israeli tourists. A spokesman for the group subsequently stated “The operation was meant to take place at a time when Jewish tourists were supposed to be going to Alexandria. But we were surprised to find the Jews had been replaced by Greeks as a result of security plans by the Egyptian police to safeguard the Jews only”. 27 April 1996, Paraguay Paraguayan police arrested members of an Iranian-controlled Hizbollah terrorist cell in the tri-border of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay on their way to attack a Jewish institution. Two days later the Argentinean press reported the release from custody of two Lebanese citizens. 29 April 1996, Calgary A letterbomb sent to the offices of the Jewish National Fund at the Jewish Community Center in Calgary, Canada failed to explode. No claim for responsibility was made. 30 April 1996, Paris The Israeli press reported the arrest in Paris of Hizbollah terrorists who were planning an attack on an Israeli institution. 13 February 1997, Jacksonville Harry Shapiro, a Jewish gas station cashier, placed a pipe bomb outside the Jacksonville, Florida Jewish Centre. He was described by police as having emotional difficulties after he had been charged with the offence, and also making a bomb threat to the Center a fortnight earlier when former Israeli Prime Minister, Shimon Peres, was due to speak. 23 February 1997, New York Palestinian Ali Hassan Abu Kamal killed one person and wounded five others on the observation deck of the Empire State Building by shooting at them. Although he was said to have no links to terrorism, and his family said he was not political, he left two notes, one in Arabic and the other in English, in which he blamed the US for using Israel as an instrument against Palestinians. 31 July 1997, New York Two Palestinian asylum seekers, Gazi Ibrahim Abu Mezer and Lafi Khalil, were arrested after a shootout with police in a Brooklyn apartment. A search of their apartment unearthed homemade bombs and a document in which they threatened suicide attacks and demanded the release from custody of convicted Islamist terrorists, Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman, Ramzi Yousef and Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. At their trial the following year, Abu Mezer stated that he intended to kill as many Jews as possible in a suicide bomb attack. He claimed he was a supporter, but not a member, of Hamas. He was subsequently imprisoned for life; Khalil was found guilty of having fake immigration papers. 14 May 1998, Moscow A bomb made of TNT exploded at the Moscow Lubavitch Maryina Roshcha synagogue, ripping a hole in the building and damaging nearby cars. Children and teachers had left the building only minutes before. It is believed that neo-Nazi skinheads were responsible. 23 April 1998, Athens Two firebombs exploded outside the offices of the Central Board of Jewish Communities in Athens. A previously unknown group, International Solidarity, claimed responsibility. 1 October 1998, Brussels A grenade was found and safely dismantled outside the Israel Embassy in Brussels, Belgium. No claim for responsibility was made. 1 May 1999, Moscow One bomb containing 400 grams of explosives went off fifty meters away from the Choral synagogue whilst a religious service was going on inside. A second bomb went off nearly an hour later near the Marina Roshcha synagogue in northern Moscow. The police subsequently stated that neo-Nazis were suspected. 13 May 1999, Moscow A TNT bomb partially destroyed two floors of the Marina Roscha synagogue in Moscow shortly after seventy children and their teachers had left the building. The attack took place on Lag B’Omer. Two workers at a nearby construction site of a Jewish community centre were also injured by the blast. 18 June 1999, Sacramento A series of arson attacks on synagogues in Sacramento, California were believed to have been committed by members of the California World Church of the Creator. The following year, in April 2000, Benjamin Mathew Williams and James Tylant Williams were tried and convicted of conspiracy to commit arson and destruction of religious property in connection with the attacks and the firebombing of an abortion clinic. 2-4 July 1999, Chicago Benjamin Nataniel Smith, a former member of the American white supremacist World Church of the Creator, went on a shooting spree injuring six people leaving a local synagogue and killing and wounding other passers-by and motorists over the course of the next few days. He committed suicide following a police chase. July 1999, Moscow Leopold Kaimovsky, the executive director of the Moscow Choral synagogue’s Jewish cultural centre, was stabbed several times in his office inside the synagogue by Nikita Krivchun, by a member of the neo-Nazi Russian National Unity Group. 2 August 1999, Athens A homemade bomb made of propane gas canisters shattered the windows of the Greece Israel Friendship Society in Athens. There were no injuries. Claim for responsibility was made by the previously unknown Black Star group. 10 August 1999, Los Angeles Buford Furrow, a member of the American far right Aryan Nations attacked the North Valley Jewish Community Center with a variety of firearms killing a postman and injuring three children and two adults. 18 November 1999, Rome A crudely constructed pipe bomb was planted outside a cinema, which was showing a Holocaust film to the Jewish community with the attendance of the Israel Ambassador. The package was found and taken away. A few days earlier a similar bomb was discovered outside the National Museum of Liberation, which had also been daubed with antisemitic slogans. 4 March 2000, Canada Tarek Adealy Khafagy, an Egyptian refugee was arrested for possessing an explosive substance. The police stated that he was also involved with bomb plots against the Israel embassy in Ottawa and the consulate in Montreal. 10 March 2000, Canada Ayman Bondok and Kim St. Louis were arrested for possessing illegal explosives. They were charged with threatening Israel in an effort to win the release of Lebanese prisoners. It is believed that Bondok had also made threatening calls to the Israel consulate. 27 July 2000, Dusseldorf A shrapnel bomb exploded in a commuter rail station wounded nine people, including five Jews. German Interior Minister Otto Schilly stated that it was the work of neo-Nazis. 2 October 2000, Dusseldorf A synagogue in Dusseldorf, Germany was firebombed. The police subsequently arrested and charged two Arabs with the attack. 29 December 2000, Minsk Firebombs were thrown at a synagogue in Minsk, Belarus. 3 January 2001, Zurich A bomb exploded outside the entrance to the office of El Al airlines in Zurich, causing damage but no injuries. The Revolutionary Perspective Group claimed responsibility. 2 April 2002, France and Belgium A gunman fired through the metal shutter of a kosher butchers in Toulouse, and in Lyons a group of youths rammed two stolen cars through the armoured gates of the Rav Hida community centre, setting fire to them before they fled. The attacks followed a series of arson attacks in synagogues in Lyons, Strasbourg, Marseilles and Brussels. 11 April 2002, Djerba A truck filled with natural gas cannisters crashed into a wall surrounding the historic Griba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia and exploded, killing nineteen people and injuring fifteen. Members of a French-Tunisian family living in the Lyons region of France, and stated to be connected to al-Qaeda, were charged with the attack. 20-21 April 2002, Charleroi Machine-gun fire against the synagogue in Charleroi, Belgium caused damage, but no casualties. No claim for responsibility was made. May 2002, Casablanca Moroccan authorities arrested members of an al-Qaeda linked cell of Saudi nationals who planned to blow up synagogues and poison prominent members of the Casablanca Jewish community. 4 July 2002, Los Angeles A gunman opened fire by the El Al ticket counter in Los Angeles International Airport killing two people and wounding four. An El Al security guard returned fire killing the gunman. 28 November 2002, Mombassa Thirteen people, three Israelis and ten Kenyans, were killed and about eighty people were injured when a car bomb exploded by the lobby of the Israeli-owned Paradise Hotel in Mombassa, Kenya. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack. 28 November 2002, Mombassa Two missiles were fired at an Israeli Arkia airliner taking off from Mombassa airport. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack. 3 December 2002, Canberra and Sydney Jack Roche, a British-born convert to Islam, was charged with plotting bomb attacks on the Israel embassy in Canberra and the consulate in Sydney. Roche claimed to have been al-Qaeda-trained in Afghanistan. 3 June 2003, Charleroi Belgian police arrested a man of Moroccan origin suspected of preparing a car bomb attack on the Charleroi synagogue. The car, containing gas canisters, caught fire but did not explode, thereby reducing the risk of substantial damage. 16 May 2003, Casablanca Locally recruited al-Qaeda-affiliated terrorists killed forty-four people and wounded more than one hundred others in suicide attacks against a series of Jewish-linked targets. The attack coincided with Lag B’Omer and the targets included a Jewish cemetery, a Spanish restaurant, the Hotel Farah, the Alliance Israelite Community Centre and the Jewish-owned Positano restaurant. 9 September 2003, Munich German police seized large quantities of TNT, firearms and grenades thereby foiling a plot by the neo-Nazi Kameradenschaft Sud, to bomb a ceremony on 9 November, the anniversary of Kristallnacht. The ceremony, which was to mark the dedication of a new synagogue, was to have been attended by German President Rau and many other notables. 11 September 2003, Ben M’Sik-Sidi Othman Albert Rebibo, a Moroccan Jew, was assassinated by unknown killers but the police investigation proved that the bullets that were fired were from a gun found in the home of Mohamed Negaoni, a member of the al-Qaeda-linked Salafiya Jihadiya group, who was currently on trial in connection with the 16 May bombings. 30 September 2003, Bangkok Thai police claimed to have foiled plans by Islamist extremists to attack El Al planes at Bangkok International Airport. A man was arrested at the airport taking photographs close to El Al facilities. A search of his home uncovered links to al-Qaeda and plans to use a surface-to-air missile to attack aircraft. 30 September 2003, Berlin and Dusseldorf Four men, allegedly linked to the Islamist terrorist group al Tawhid, were charged with plotting to attack the Jewish museum in Berlin and a Jewish-owned bar in Dusseldorf. 15 November 2003, Istanbul Twenty-three people were killed and three hundred injured in consecutive car bomb attacks on the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel synagogues during the Shabbat morning services. Although the Great Eastern Islamic Raiders Front initially claimed responsibility, al-Qaeda subsequently claimed that it had carried out the attack.